Katherine J. Coyner, M.D. - Orthopedic Surgeon - Specializing in Sports Medicine South Western Sports Medicine Program
Katherine J. Coyner, M.D. - Orthopedic Surgeon - Specializing in Sports Medicine: 972 669 7101
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Katherine J. Coyner, M.D. - Orthopedic Surgeon - Specializing in Sports Medicine
 
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Education

Knee

Normal Anatomy of the Knee Joint

Normal Anatomy of the Knee Joint

How does the Knee joint work?
Find out more in this web based movie.

Normal Anatomy of the Knee Joint Normal Anatomy of the Knee Joint - Katherine J. Coyner, M.D.

Arthroscopy of the Knee Joint

Arthroscopy of the Knee Joint

Arthroscopy is a surgical procedure in which an arthroscope is inserted into a joint. Arthroscopy is a term that comes from two Greek words, arthro-, meaning joint, and -skopein, meaning to examine.

The benefits of arthroscopy involve smaller incisions, faster healing, a more rapid recovery, and less scarring. Arthroscopic surgical procedures are often performed on an outpatient basis and the patient is able to return home on the same day.

Find out more about Knee Arthroscopy from the following links.

Arthroscopy of the Knee Joint
Arthroscopy of the Knee Joint
Arthroscopy of the Knee Joint Arthroscopy of the Knee Joint - Katherine J. Coyner, M.D.

ACL Reconstruction Hamstring Tendon

Anterior Cruciate Ligament ACL Reconstruction

The anterior cruciate ligament is one of the major stabilizing ligaments in the knee. It is a strong rope like structure located in the centre of the knee running from the femur to the tibia. When this ligament tears unfortunately it doesn't heal and often leads to the feeling of instability in the knee.

ACL reconstruction is a commonly performed surgical procedure and with recent advances in arthroscopic surgery can now be performed with minimal incisions and low complication rates.

ACL Reconstruction Hamstring Tendon

ACL Reconstruction Hamstring Tendon ACL Reconstruction Hamstring Tendon ACL Reconstruction Hamstring Tendon Anterior Cruciate Ligament ACL Reconstruction - Katherine J. Coyner, M.D.
ACL Reconstruction Patellar Tendon

ACL Reconstruction Patellar Tendon

ACL Reconstruction Patellar Tendon ACL Reconstruction Patellar Tendon
ACL Reconstruction Patellar Tendon ACL Reconstruction Patellar Tendon - Katherine J. Coyner, M.D.

Tibial Eminence Spine Avulsions

Tibial Eminence Spine Avulsions

Tibial eminence spine avulsion fracture is avulsion (tear away) of the tibial eminence (an extension on the bone for attachment of muscles) which most commonly involves the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) insertion site. This injury represents the childhood equivalent of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) rupture and may occur as a result of abnormal outward bending or twist, injuries caused by sudden halt of moving joints, excessive flexion (bending inwards) and internal rotation as happens in skiing and also in motor vehicle accidents.

Find out more about Tibial Eminence Spine Avulsions from the following links.

Tibial Eminence Spine Avulsions

Anterior Cruciate Ligament Tear

Anterior Cruciate Ligament Tear

The anterior cruciate ligament, or ACL, is one of the major ligaments of the knee that is located in the middle of the knee and runs from the femur (thigh bone) to the tibia (shin bone). It prevents the tibia from sliding out in front of the femur. Together with posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) it provides rotational stability to the knee.

Find out more about Anterior Cruciate Ligament Tear from the following links.

Anterior Cruciate Ligament Tear
Anterior Cruciate Ligament Tear - Katherine J. Coyner, M.D.

Posterior Cruciate Ligament Tear

Posterior Cruciate Ligament Tear

Posterior cruciate ligament (PCL), one of four major ligaments of the knee is situated at the back of the knee. It connects the thighbone (femur) to the shinbone (tibia). The PCL limits the backward motion of the shinbone.

Find out more about Posterior Cruciate Ligament Tear from the following links.

Posterior Cruciate Ligament Tear
Posterior Cruciate Ligament Tear - Katherine J. Coyner, M.D.

Medial Collateral Ligament Tear

Medial Collateral Ligament Tear

The medial collateral ligament (MCL) is the ligament that is located on the inner part of the knee joint. It runs from the femur (thighbone) to the top of the tibia (shinbone) and helps in stabilizing the knee. Medial collateral ligament (MCL) injury can result in a stretch, partial tear, or complete tear of the ligament. Injuries to the MCL commonly occur as a result of a pressure or stress on the outside part of the knee. Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) may be torn along with a MCL injury.

Find out more about Medial Collateral Ligament Tear from the following links.

Medial Collateral Ligament Tear
Medial Collateral Ligament Tear - Katherine J. Coyner, M.D.

Multi-ligament Injury

Multi-ligament Injury

Ligaments are the fibrous tissue brands connecting the bones in the joint and stabilizing the joint. Knee joint has 2 sets of ligaments-collateral ligaments (medial and collateral ligaments) that connect the bones on outer side of the knee and cruciate ligaments (anterior cruciate ligament and posterior cruciate ligament) those present inside the joint. Multi-ligament injury is the injury to multiple ligaments at the same time. Damage to three or more ligaments may cause joint dislocation.

Find out more about Multi-ligament Injury from the following links.

Multi-ligament Injury
Multi-ligament Injury  - Katherine J. Coyner, M.D.

Articular Cartilage Injury/Osteochondral Defect

Articular Cartilage Injury/Osteochondral Defect

Articular or hyaline cartilage is the tissue lining the surface of the two bones in the knee joint. Cartilage helps the bones move smoothly against each other and can withstand the weight of the body during activities such as running and jumping. Articular cartilage does not have a direct blood supply to it so has less capacity to repair itself. Once the cartilage is torn it will not heal easily and can lead to degeneration of the articular surface, leading to development of osteoarthritis.

Find out more about Articular Cartilage Injury/Osteochondral Defect from the following links.

Articular Cartilage Injury/Osteochondral Defect
Articular Cartilage Injury/Osteochondral Defect  - Katherine J. Coyner, M.D.

Arthritis

Arthritis

Arthritis is a general term covering numerous conditions where the joint surface or cartilage wears out. The joint surface is covered by a smooth articular surface that allows pain free movement in the joint. This surface can wear out for a number of reasons; often the definite cause is not known. When the articular cartilage wears out the bone ends rub on one another and cause pain. This condition is referred to as Osteoarthritis or "wear and tear" arthritis as it occurs with aging and use. It is the most common type of arthritis.

Find out more about Arthritis from the following links.

Arthritis
Arthritis   - Katherine J. Coyner, M.D.

Quadriceps Tendon Rupture

Quadriceps Tendon Rupture

Quadriceps tendon is a thick tissue located at the top of the kneecap. The quadriceps tendon works together with the quadriceps muscles to allow us to straighten our leg. The quadriceps muscles are the muscles located in front of the thigh.

Find out more about Quadriceps Tendon Rupture from the following links.

Quadriceps Tendon Rupture
Quadriceps Tendon Rupture   - Katherine J. Coyner, M.D.

Patellar Tendon Rupture

Patellar Tendon Rupture

Patellar tendon rupture is the rupture of the tendon that connects the patella (knee cap) to the top portion of the tibia (shin bone). The patellar tendon works together with the quadriceps muscle and the quadriceps tendon to allow your knee to straighten out.

Find out more about Patellar Tendon Rupture from the following links.

Patellar Tendon Rupture
Patellar Tendon Rupture  - Katherine J. Coyner, M.D.

Patellar Tendinitis

Patellar Tendinitis

Patellar tendinitis, also known as "jumper's knee" is an inflammation of the patellar tendon that connects your kneecap (patella) to your shinbone. This tendon helps in extension of the lower leg. Patellar tendinitis usually results from repetitive trauma or overuse, particularly from sports activities involving jumping such as basketball or volleyball. Therefore, this condition is also known as jumper's knee. Rarely, this condition may also occur because of an acute injury to the tendon that has not healed properly.

Find out more about Patellar tendinitis from the following links.

Patellar Tendinitis
Patellar Tendinitis  - Katherine J. Coyner, M.D.

Patellofemoral Instability (Dislocation)

Patellofemoral Instability (Dislocation)

Patella (knee cap) is a protective bone attached to the quadriceps muscles of the thigh by quadriceps tendon. Patella attaches with the femur bone and forms a patellofemoral joint. Patella is protected by a ligament which secures the kneecap from gliding out and is called as medial patellofemoral ligament (MPFL).

Find out more about Patellofemoral Instability (Dislocation) from the following links.

Patellofemoral Instability (Dislocation)
Patellofemoral Instability (Dislocation)
Patellofemoral Instability (Dislocation)  - Katherine J. Coyner, M.D.

Pediatric Tibial Tubercule

Pediatric Tibial Tubercule

Tibial tubercle fractures are quite rare occurrences that typically affect physically active adolescents between the age 14 and 17. It is caused from violent tensile forces exerted over the tibial tuberosity (a bulge in the tibial bone) during activities involving sudden contraction of the knee extensors (springing and jumping). A history of Osgood-Schlatter disease in the family may increase susceptibility to tibial tubercle fracture.

Find out more about Pediatric Tibial Tubercule from the following links.

Pediatric Tibial Tubercule
Pediatric Tibial Tubercule - Katherine J. Coyner, M.D.

Tibial Eminence Spine Avulsions

Tibial eminence spine avulsion fracture is avulsion (tear away) of the tibial eminence (an extension on the bone for attachment of muscles) which most commonly involves the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) insertion site. This injury represents the childhood equivalent of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) rupture and may occur as a result of abnormal outward bending or twist, injuries caused by sudden halt of moving joints, excessive flexion (bending inwards) and internal rotation as happens in skiing and also in motor vehicle accidents.

Find out more about Tibial Eminence Spine Avulsions from the following links.

Tibial Eminence Spine Avulsion

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